Sehitlik Mosque-Moschee-Masjid Berlin, Berlin Germany
The Sehitlik Mosque (Turkish: Türk Berlin Sehitlik Camii) in Berlin was built before 1983 at the Turkish cemetery at the Columbia dam in the district of Neukölln and expanded between 1999 and 2005. The mosque took its name from the Turkish cemetery, which was created back in 1863 as a diplomatic graveyard. The derivative of Sehitlik Şehit (=) may mean martyrdom martyrs or Soldaten-/Ehrenfriedhof.
Mosque -The mosque offers 1500 square and the faithful prayer hall in the 1st Floor has an area of 365 square meters.
Planning -Entrance of the Turkish cemetery
The mosque, with neighboring buildings was developed by the company Hassanein Mim. Trouble. Ltd.. AS. Designed by the architect of Turkey Hilmi Senalp. Senalp also planned the mosques in Ashgabat (Turkmenistan) and Tokyo (Japan) and directed the construction work. For the Sehitlik mosque, he made the execution plans. The statics calculated Hüseyin Portakal from Augsburg. The foundation stone for the reconstruction took place in 1999. The shell was carried out under the direction of Tarkan Akarsu from Berlin, who also presented the addendum to the building permit due to changes in the building.
Building complex -Mosque in the Muslim cemetery in the winter
In the complex of buildings is a cultural center with a mosque. Therefore, the planning and execution were carried out in three sections. The first phase consisted of three storeys. The first floor is half the size of the ground floor because the stage has been built as a terrace. The cultural center will include at the end of the third phase of construction around 2805 m².
The second phase is the mosque, with four bullets. The basement was designed as a multipurpose hall. The ground floor is currently used as a prayer room and is used in the future as a meeting room and spare room for prayer, the mosque is in the 1 Floor. The minarets are available from the first floor. On the gallery floor to pray, as a rule the women. The third phase has started.
Use -The Mosque is the Muslims of the adjoining districts, especially Neukölln and Kreuzberg as a place of worship, prayer, the language is Turkish, above all, depending on the occasion also Arabic. Besides taking place in the mosque and the burial ceremonies, most of the Islamic community in Berlin, the dead will then be transferred to the cemetery landscape Gatow or in the home of the deceased, as the Turkish cemetery directly utilized at the mosque just as the Muslim burial grounds of the New Garrison Cemetery are.
Cultural center in the shell, adjacent to the mosque
Since the mosque next to the religious and social functions and serves as a community center, there are facilities for these purposes.
Architecture -As an architectural model of the mosque served the Ottoman Architecture of the 16th and 17 Century. This period was characterized by Mimar Sinan, the Ottoman architecture reached its classical peak. The period lasted until the beginning of the 18th Century, were stronger than the European influences on Ottoman architecture.
Data structure -The first section is a total of 940 m² in size. The mosque, with all floors (basement, earth, 1 upper and upper floor) has a total of 1360 sqm gross floor area (GFA). The basement has about 450 m² gross area, the ground floor is about 400 square meters in size and the gross floor area of the 1 Floor (the prayer room) is about 365 square meters.
The total gross floor area of the mezzanine level, is about 145 square meters. The main dome of 12 feet in diameter sits on an octagonal beam. The weight of the dome will be forwarded by the eight half-domes on the outside wall and thus to the foundations. The basement and ground floor are each 3.5 meters high and the 1st Floor is up to the small domes 8.47 meters, up to the main dome 15.42 m high. The level below the gallery floor is four feet.
The total height of the outside of the main dome to the mosque floor is 16.5 meters, 21.1 m. to the surface. In the mosque can be measured a clear height of 16.32 meters. The length of the minarets, the first floor, and without tip, is 25.03 meters, with the top down to the crescent 33.56 meters. The total size of the third phase of construction is about 505 square meters. The Cultural Center will end around 2805 m² are available.
For the building structure and design -The buildings from the classical period are classified by architectural terminology for the structure. Basically, the forms used the four-, six-and-pillar achtkuppeltragenden plans. The mosque was built in kuppeltragender octagonal pillars and arches form of a steel structure.
The design possibilities of the central space formed simultaneously in the classical Ottoman architecture, the design criteria of this construction, because by the time design and construction to enlarge the central space was limited. Typical examples of an eight-pillar plan, the Selimiye Camii in Edirne and the Kadirga Sokullu Pasa Camii in Istanbul.
The canopy is a secular component, which is used in mosques only very rarely. Here, it was realized, to maintain the facade of a uniform design of the complex. On the facade of the mosque are the bird’s palaces, which shows the reference architecture at that time on the animals.
Technology -The main focus of the interior decoration was the harmony of the mixed use of ceramic and marble. At the prayer niche, crown sermon, preaching firm and between these arches can be observed. Such mixed use of these materials was not known in the classical period. This mosque is therefore not a repetition or copy of any mosque, but is a new form of design possibilities of the classical period dar. The use of marble was mined processed on the island of Marmara.
The ceramic structure is real at the Iznik ceramics, which was deformed in the Turkish city of İznik decorated by hand, and dyed. The bottom of the ceramic made of quartz sand. The raw panels are dyed after production hours and then sanded. Then, the motives to be applied by dust technology (the same technique was also on the main dome) is used, then they are painted. In the oven at 600 ° C are bonded to the motifs and colors of the ceramics. Finally, the plates are provided with a glaze and baked in an oven at 900 ° C heat. The amount of heat in the oven and the Bleibedauer is crucial for a satisfactory outcome. Sometimes a desired piece of ceramic is achieved only after five to six times repeated.
Art -All used materials such as wood, marble, Gipsfenster, calligraphy has been prepared at great expense original layout and built-in. The plates on which the name of Allah, Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman, Ali, Hasan, Hüsseyin stand, are the transition elements. The sharp transitions are intercut from the main dome to the domes of these elements visually easier.
The Muqarnas located in the lower layer, transitional elements, allowing the aesthetic connection between the small domes and the outside walls. The Muqarnas are an art form whose design and construction is currently under threat and increasingly forgotten. On the main dome are traditionally the verses Ihlas-i Serif, the writings were executed with 23-carat gold decoration. Usually the color of the background of cobalt blue, dark green, but here was selected, which was used in the mosques from the earlier period very often. The main colors used are titanium oxide (white), cobalt blue, iron oxide (orange, red) and ocher (yellow), other colors caused by the mixture of these primary colors.
In the embodiment of calligraphy were first sketched on the wall and the dome of the body and width of the lettering with a pencil. The thickness of the letters was decided by the distance between the dome and the bottom spot. It should be noted that writing the reader may occur neither too small nor too large. After that, the context and the motives were added to the script around. Ultimately, the whole design has been perfected by the main dome up to the pillars or socks up and down about the balance of colors and sizes after several adjustments, piece by piece. The calligraphy of the mosque was run by Mr Hüseyin Kutlu, whose famous teacher of Mr. Hamid Aytaç. The painting was designed by Mr. Semih Irtes locally and adapted to the walls and domes and painted. This is not mentioned here, and the artists, professionals, or plasterers have come from Turkey, only the construction of this mosque in Berlin.
Height problem -View from the Hasenheide on the minarets
Shortly before the opening of the mosque in 2003, measurements of the Neukölln district office revealed that the minaret near the Tempelhof airport instead of the approved height of 28.60 meters now showed a height of 37.10 meters. The dome was later retired with a 21.30 meters to 4.10 meters as approved. In October 2003 they could agree to “undertake a subsequent healing of the defects of a building by an addendum to the building permit. The builders DITIB was imposed a fine of 80,000 euros. A cross-section and a fine of half a million euro could therefore be prevented.